Engineering and Science:
Engineering (Technology) is:
- the invention of things that did not previously exist
- creation of specific objects
- the discovery of things that have long existed
- creation of general theories that unify knowledge
To what extent does technological innovation flow from scientific discovery?
Designers of Three Dimensional Public Spaces
- Structural Engineers
3 Measures of Design Performance:
- Scientific Dimension.
- Use of Minimal Natural Resources.
- Form Controls the Forces.
- Form Changes the Actions & Reactions.
- Social Dimension.
- Use of Minimal Public Resources.
- Must Consider Material Costs & Constructibility.
- Dependant upon Time & Place.
- •Quantities are measurable but….labor & bidding process are not.
- Symbolic Dimension.
- Aesthetic Motivation of the Designer.
- Aesthetic ideas can be traced back to the earliest forms of architecture.
- Theories on the importance of structural expression and construction techniques.
Architect – the beginnings:
- The architect of a structure was also supposed to be the engineer, combining knowledge of geometry and materials with artistic expression.
- In medieval times this remained true, with the concept of the architect as the “master builder”.
- Even in the Renaissance, the ideals of Science and Beauty went hand in hand and engineering was considered to be a part of art.
Architect – the master builder:
- Ictinus & Callicrates
- Da Vinci
- Filippo Brunelleschi
Changes during the 19th century
- Before 19th century, structural forces understood only in empirical terms (observation and experiment)
- Late 18th century – exact knowledge began to replace guesswork
- Late 19th century – science of statics – architecturally viable
- Structural calculations intrinsic to the employment of iron skeletal construction
The Industrial Revolution
- New methods of structural design created and put into practice by members of a new profession – civil engineers who were previously military engineers
- Structural expertise removed from the domain of architects
- Mid and late 19th century – spectacular advances made by civil engineers
Schism – the split:
- Pre-schism architect was the “Master Builder”
- Separation between architect, engineer and constructor
What lead to the schism:
Industrial Revolution introduced new materials, methods and aspirations
Specialized schools were established
- Ecole de Beaux Arts & Ecole de Polytechnique
- ETH, Zurich
Architectural curricula focused on:
Engineering curricula focused on:
Civil Engineers – their contributions
- John Augustus Roebling
- Alexandre Gustave Eiffel
- Pier Luigi Nervi
- Robert Malliart
John Augustus Roebling (1806 – 1869):
- Born in Prussia, he emigrated to the United States in 1831.
- He graduated with a degree in civil engineering from the Royal Polytechnic Institute of Berlin in 1826.
- In 1841, he invented the twisted wire-rope cable, an invention which foreshadowed the use of wire cable supports for the decks of suspension bridges.
- As the cable could support long spans and extremely heavy loads, he quickly gained a reputation as a quality bridge engineer.
- Roebling utilized steel cables in the construction of numerous suspension bridges and is generally considered one of the pioneers in the field of suspension-bridge construction.
- The Brooklyn Bridge, New York, 1869 – 1883.
- The Niagara Rail Bridge, 1841 – 1855 .
- The Cincinnati – Covington Bridge, 1856 – 1867.
The Brooklyn Bridge, New York, 1869 -1883:
- Overall width: 85 feet
- Total length: 5,989 feet
- Length of approach: 971 feet (Brooklyn approach) & 1,562 feet, 6 inches (Manhattan approach)
- Length of main span: 1,595 feet, 6 inches
- Number of supporting cables: 4
- Diameter of each cable: 15 ½ inches
- Ultimate strength of a cable: 11,200 tons
- Weight of each cable: 3,272 tons
Alexandre Gustave Eiffel (1832 – 1923)
- He was born in Dijon France in 1832.
- Later, he graduated from the Ecole Centrale des Arts et Manufactures, Paris in 1855 and joined a Belgian firm which specialized in railway equipment.
- He established an independent practice in 1864 after which he established a career as an engineer-contractor.
- Eiffel was a master of elegantly constructed wrought-iron lattices.
- The structures that Eiffel designed had great social, economical, and political impact on the world. These structures include the Eiffel Tower, the Panama Canal, and the Statue of Liberty.
- The Statue of Liberty, 1884.
- The Eiffel Tower, Paris, 1889.
- The Panama Canal, 1904 – 1914 .
The Eiffel Tower, Paris, 1889:
- It was built for the Paris World’s Fair of 1889.
- This metal skeletal structure of 15,000 metal parts has both rectilinear and curvilinear ornamentation in iron.
- Eiffel designed it as a cross-braced latticed girder with minimum wind resistance.
- Constructed from over 6300 metric tons of highest quality wrought iron, it is a masterpiece of wrought-iron technology.
The Panama Canal, 1904 – 1914:
- Panama Canal, canal across the Isthmus of Panama, in Central America, that allows vessels to travel between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans.
- The waterway measures 64 km, including dredged approach channels at each end.
- The canal’s 12 locks (3 sets of double locks at each end) have the same dimensions: 33.5 m (110 ft) wide by 305 m (1,000 ft) long.
- The gates at each end are 2.1 m (7 ft) thick.
Pier Luigi Nervi (1891 – 1979)
- He was born June 21, 1891, in the Italian Alps town of Sondrio, Italy.
- Nervi studied in the Civic Engineering School at the University of Bologna and joined the army engineering corps following the entanglement of Italy in World War I.
- After the war was over, he joined a group called “The Society for Concrete Construction” and later established his own firm in 1920.
- It was not until after Nervi left the group in 1923 that his unique approach to building garnered critical attention.
A builder and designer of new forms
- “..searching for solutions that were intrinsically and when constructed the most economic.”
- Primarily an engineer and technician, not an architect
- Strove primarily for “strength through form.”
- Maintained that the strong aesthetic appeal of his buildings was simply a by-product of their structural correctness.
- The ceiling are the most awe inspiring part of his structures, described in words like “sunburst” and “lacework” (or the more technical cantilevered roof trusses and lamella vault)
- He combined technical expertise, intuition, pragmatism, and a material of his own invention- “ferro-cemento”- to achieve structural beauty in a tradition of Italian design.
- Air Force Hangar I, 1936.
- Salone Agnelli B, Turin, 1949.
- Palazzetto dello Sport, Rome, 1959
Palazzetto dello Sport, Rome, 1959:
- The innovative dome is made of ribbed reinforced concrete.
- Continuous windows circle around the arena under the dome.
Robert Maillart (1872 – 1940)
- Robert Maillart, a Swiss engineer, was renowned for his inventive and beautiful reinforced-concrete bridges.
- Maillart’s basic structural principles—integration of the supporting arch, the stiffening wall, and the traffic platform into one cohesive unit—were applied as early as 1901 in a bridge at Zuoz, Switzerland.
- Robert Maillart had an intuition and genius that could entirely exploit the aesthetic of concrete.
- He designed three-hinged arches in which the deck and the arch ribs were combined to produce closely integrated structures that evolved into stiffened arches of very thin reinforced concrete and concrete slabs.
- These designs went beyond the common boundaries of concrete design in Maillart’s time.
- Scientific Analysis
- Visual Analysis
- Empirical Analysis
Role of the Architect Today:
Owens Corning HQ, Toledo, Ohio.
- CM & CBP team
- exterior architect
- interior architect
- production drawing architect
- curtain wall architect
- engineering disciplines
- construction manager
Role of the Engineer Today
- technician vs. innovator
- synthesis of scientific & empirical knowledge
Relationship – Engineering & Architecture
- a close working relationship between individuals from different backgrounds
- mutual respect
- common vocabulary
- Can there be a modern day “master builder”?
Nervi, Candela, Wright, Rogers, Calatrava
- Can we transfer technologies and solutions from other disciplines?
NASA – composites, ceramics, polymers
- Can the synthetic process be a redefinition of the problem?
- client, architect, builder
- design – bid – buildOwens Corning Process
- CM hires specialized disciplines
Synthetic process – a skillful coordination
- Specialists and manufacturers are taking a bigger role in the process
- Maki, Fujisawa, Gymnasium Roof
- Foster, Hong Kong Shanghai Bank